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365体育备用网址“英美文學選讀”名詞解釋(1)

 

  01. Humanism(人文主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  it emphasizes the dignity of human beings and the importance of the present life. Humanists voiced their beliefs that man was the center of the universe and man did not only have the right to enjoy the beauty of the present life, but had the ability to perfect himself and to perform wonders.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  02. Renaissance(文藝復興) xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The word “Renaissance”means “rebirth”, it meant the reintroduction into westerm Europe of the full cultural heritage of Greece and Rome.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>the essence of the Renaissance is Humanism. Attitudes and feelings which had been characteristic of the 14th and 15th centuries persisted well down into the era of Humanism and reformation.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> the real mainstream of the english Renaissance is the Elizabethan drama with william shakespeare being the leading dramatist.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  03. Metaphysical poetry(玄學派詩歌)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Metaphysical poetry is commonly used to name the work of the 17th century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>with a rebellious spirit, the Metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>the diction is simple as compared with that of the Elizabethan or the Neoclassical periods, and echoes the words and cadences of common speech.4>the imagery is drawn from actual life.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  04. Classcism(古典主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Classcism refers to a movement or tendency in art, literature, or music that reflects the principles manifested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Classicism emphasizes the traditional and the universal, and places value on reason, clarity, balance, and order. Classicism, with its concern for reason and universal themes, is traditionally opposed to Romanticism, which is concerned with emotions and personal themes.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  05. Enlightenment(啟蒙運動)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Enlightenment movement was a progressive philosophical and artistic movement which flourished in france and swept through western Europe in the 18th century.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> the movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance from 14th century to the mid-17th century.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4>it celebrated reason or rationality, equality and science. It advocated universal education.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  5>famous among the great enlighteners in england were those great writers like Alexander pope. Jonathan swift.etc.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  06.Neoclassicism(新古典主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  In the field of literature, the enlightenment movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>this tendency is known as neoclassicism. The Neoclassicists held that forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Homer and Virgil and those of the contemporary French ones.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> they believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic, restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  07. The Graveyard School(墓地派詩歌)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The Graveyard School refers to a school of poets of the 18th century whose poems are mostly devoted to a sentimental lamentation or meditation on life. Past and present, with death and graveyard as themes.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>Thomas Gray is considered to be the leading figure of this school and his Elegy written in a country churchyard is its most representative work.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  08. Romanticism(浪漫主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  1>In the mid-18th century, a new literary movement called romanticism came to Europe and then to England.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>It was characterized by a strong protest against the bondage of neoclassicism, which emphasized reason, order and elegant wit. Instead, romanticism gave primary concern to passion, emotion, and natural beauty.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>In the history of literature. Romanticism is generally regarded as the thought that designates a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and experience. 4> The English romantic period is an age of poetry which prevailed in England from 1798 to 1837. The major romantic poets include Wordsworth, Byron and Shelley.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  09. Byronic Hero(拜倫式英雄)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Byronic hero refers to a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> with immense superiority in his passions and powers, this Byronic Hero would carry on his shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society. And would rise single-handedly against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government, in religion, or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> Byron‘s chief contribution to English literature is his creation of the “Byronic Hero”xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  10. Critical Realism(批判現實主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Critical Realism is a term applied to the realistic fiction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> It means the tendency of writers and intellectuals in the period between 1875 and 1920 to apply the methods of realistic fiction to the criticism of society and the examination of social issues.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> Realist writers were all concerned about the fate of the common people and described what was faithful to reality.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4> Charles Dickens is the most important critical realist.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  11. Aestheticism(美學主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The basic theory of the Aesthetic movement—— “art for art‘s sake” was set forth by a French poet, Theophile Gautier, the first Englishman who wrote about the theory of aestheticism was Walter Pater.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> aestheticism places art above life, and holds that life should imitate art, not art imitate life.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> According to the aesthetes, all artistic creation is absolutely subjective as opposed to objective. Art should be free from any influence of egoism. Only when art is for art‘s sake, can it be immortal. They believed that art should be unconcerned with controversial issues, such as politics and morality, and that it should be restricted to contributing beauty in a highly polished style.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4> This is one of the reactions against the materialism and commercialism of the Victorian industrial era, as well as a reaction against the Victorian convention of art for morality‘s sake, or art for money’s sake.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  美學運動的基本原則“為藝術而藝術”最初由法國詩人西奧費爾。高締爾提出,英國運用該美學理論的第一人是沃爾特。佩特。美學主義崇尚藝術高于生活,認為生活應模仿藝術,而不是藝術模仿生活。在美學主義看來,所有的藝術創作都是絕對主觀而非客觀的產物。藝術不應受任何功利的影響,只有當藝術為藝術而創作時,藝術才能成為不朽之作。他們還認為藝術不應只關注一些熱點話題如政治和道德問題,藝術應著力于以華麗的風格張揚美。這是對維多利亞工業發展時期物質崇拜的一種回應,也是向藝術為道德或為金錢而服務的維多利亞傳統的挑戰。xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  12.The Victorian period(維多利亞時期) xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  In this period, the novel became the most widely read and the most vital and challenging expression of progressive thought. While sticking to the principle of faithful representation of the 18th century realist novel, novelists in this period carried their duty forward to criticism of the society and the defense of the mass.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> although writing from different points of view and with different techniques, they shared one thing in common, that is, they were all concerned about the fate of the common people. They were angry with the inhuman social institutions, the decaying social morality as represented by the money-worship and Utilitarianism, and the widespread misery, poverty and injustice.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>their truthful picture of people‘s life and bitter and strong criticism of the society had done much in awakening the public consciousness to the social problems and in the actual improvement of the society.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4> Charles Dickens is the leading figure of the Victorian period.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  13. Modernism(現代主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Modernism is comprehensive but vague term for a  movement , which begin in the late 19th century and which has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical case.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> the term pertains to all the creative arts. Especially poetry, fiction, drama, painting, music and architecture.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4> in England from early in the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s, in America from shortly before the first world war and on during the inter-war period, modernist tendencies were at their most active and fruitful.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  5>as far as literature is concerned, Modernism reveals a breaking away from established rules, traditions and conventions. fresh ways of looking at man‘s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. It is particularly concerned with language and how to use it and with writing itself.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  14. Stream of consciousness(意識流)(or interior monologue)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  In literary criticism, Stream of consciousness denotes a literary technique which seeks to describe an individual‘s point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character’s thought processes. Stream of consciousness writing is strongly associated with the modernist movement. Its introduction in the literary context, transferred from psychology, is attributed to May Sinclair. Stream of consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow, tracing as they do a character‘s fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. Famous writers to employ this technique in the English language include James Joyce and William Faulkner.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  學術界認為意識流是一種通過直接描述人物思維過程來尋求個人視角的文學寫作技巧。意識流是現代主義運動的體現,它首先出現在心現學領域,由梅。辛克拉提出的,后引進文學領域。意識流寫作通常被認為是一種特殊形式的內心獨白。它的特別是聯想性,以句法和標點的跳躍,文章的晦澀難懂為特征。來表現人物的片斷思維和感官性直覺。比較著名的使用此技巧的有喬伊斯。福克納。xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  15. American Puritanism(美國清教主義)xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Puritanism was a religious reform that arose within the Church of England in the late 16th century. Under siege from church and crown, it sent an offshoot in the third and fourth decades of the 17th to the northern English colonies in the new world——a migration that laid the foundation for the religious, intellectual, and social order of New England. Puritanism, however, was not only a historically specific phenomenon coincident with the founding of new England, it was also a way of being in the world——a style of response to lived experience——that has reverberated through American life ever since. Doctrinally, puritans adhered to the five points of Calvinism as codified at the synod of dort in 1619:xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  1) Unconditional election: the idea that God had decreed at the synod of damned and who was saved from before the beginning of the world;xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2) limited atonement: the idea that Christ died for the elect only;xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3) Total depravity: humanity‘s utter corruption since the fall;xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4) Irresistible grace: regeneration as entirely a work of God, which cannot be re3sisted and to which the sinner contributes nothing;xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  5) The perseverance of the saints: the elect, despite their backsliding and faintness of heart, cannot fall away from grace.xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  清教主義是16世紀晚期在英國教會內進行的一場宗教改革。在教會和皇權的雙重壓力之下,清教的一個分支于17世紀30,40年代遷至美洲新大陸的北方殖民地,他們為新英格蘭奠定了宗教、知識和社會秩序的基礎。清教主義不僅符合新英格蘭成立的特定歷史,而且一直反映了美國生活的一種生活方式。從教義上說,清教徒遵循加爾文派于1619年多特宗教會議上制定的五條信條:1)無條件揀選:神沒有任憑人在罪中滅亡,而是在創世以前就揀選了一群人旅行拯救; 2)有限救贖: 基督的死只是為了特定數目的選民而死; 3)完全墮落:自從亞當偷吃善惡果后,整個人類都墮落了;4)不可抗拒的恩典:圣靈的能力在罪人心里運行,一直到他認罪悔改方休;5)圣徒的堅守:圣徒是神所挑選的,無論他們如何退步,始終在神的感召下。xPW365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

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