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  16. American Romanticism(美國浪漫主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Romanticism refers to an artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual‘s expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. The romantic period in American literature stretches from the end of the 18th century through the outbreak of the civil war. It was an age of great westward expansion, of the increasing gravity of the slavery question, of an intensification of the spirit of embattled sectionalism in the south, and of a powerful impulse to reform in the north. In literature it was America’s first great creative period, a full flowering of the romantic impulse on American soil. Although foreign influences were strong, American romanticism exhibited from the very outset distinct features of its own. First, American romanticism was in essence the expression of “a real new experience”and contained “an alien quality” for the simple reason that “the spirit of the place” was radically new and alien. Second, puritan influence over American romanticism was conspicuously noticeable. Emerging as new writers of strength and creative power were the novelists Hawthorne, Melville, the poets Dickinson, Whitman, the essayists Thoreau, Emerson. These American writers had made a great literary period by capturing on their pages the enthusiasm and the optimism of that dream.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁


  17. Transcendentalism(超驗主義)  Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Transcendentalism is literature, philosophical and literary movement that flourished in new England from about 1836 to 1860. it is the summit of American Romanticism. it originated among a small group of intellectuals who were reacting against the orthodoxy of Calvinism and the rationalism of the Unitarian Church, developing instead their own faith centering on the divinity of humanity and the natural world. Transcendentalism derived some of its basic idealistic concepts from romantic German philosophy, and from such English authors as Coleridge and Wordsworth. Its mystical aspects were partly influenced by Indian and Chinese religious teachings. Although Transcendentalism was never a rigorously systematic philosophy, it had some basic tenets that were generally shared by its adherents. The beliefs that God is immanent in each person and in nature and that individual intuition is the highest source of knowledge led to an optimistic emphasis on individualism, self-reliance, and rejection of traditional authority. The ideas of Transcendentalism were most eloquently expressed by Ralph waldo Emerson in such essays as Nature, and by Henry David Thoreau in his book Walden.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  超驗主義是從1836至1860于新英格蘭發起的一場文學,哲學以及藝術運動。即浪漫主義的頂點。由于一小群知識分子反對加爾文教派和唯一神論教派理性的形式主義,他們從而提出人與自然的神圣這一信念。超驗主義受到德國浪漫主義哲學以及英國浪漫主義作家柯勒律治和沃茲華斯的影響,還在一定程度上受到東方古典哲學和宗教的影響。盡管超驗主義思想并不能算是嚴格意義上的哲學, 但是它還是有一些基本原則的。超驗主義者認為人人都有內在的神性,只有通過接觸自然才能使神性與人的天性相互融合。從而超驗主義十分強調個人主義,自立,拒絕傳統權威思想。超驗主義思想在愛默生的<論自然> 和梭羅的<瓦爾登湖>等書中表現得淋漓盡致。Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  18.  the Age of Realism(現實主義時期)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  1)。Realism was a reaction against Romanticism and paved the way to Modernism; 2)。During this period a new generation of writers, dissatisfied with the Romantic ideas in the older generation, came up with a new inspiration. This new attitude was characterized by a great interest in the realities of life. It aimed at the interpretation of the realities of any aspect of life, free from subjective prejudice, idealism, or romantic color. Instead of thinking about the mysteries of life and death and heroic individualism, people‘s attention was now directed to the interesting features of everyday existence, to what was brutal or sordid, and to the open portrayal of class struggle;3) so writers began to describe the integrity of human characters reacting under various circumstances and picture the pioneers of the far west, the new immigrants and the struggles of the working class; 4) Mark Twain Howells and Henry James are three leading figures of the American Realism.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  19. American Naturalism(美國自然主義文學)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The American naturalists accepted the more negative interpretation of Darwin‘s evolutionary theory and used it to accout for the behavior of those characters in literary works who were regarded as more or less complex combinations of inherited attributes, their habits conditioned by social and economic forces.2) naturalism is evolved from realism when the author’s tone in writing becomes less serious and less sympathetic but more ironic and more pessimistic. It is no more than a gloomy philosophical approach to reality, or to human existence.3>Dreiser is a leading figure of his school.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  20. Naturalism(自然主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Naturalism is a literary movement related to and sometimes described as an extreme form of realism but which may be more appropriately considered as a parallel to philosophic Naturalism. 2) as a more deliberate kind of realism Naturalism usually involves a view of human beings as passive victims of natural forces and social environment. In Naturalism a more documentary-like approach is in evidence, with a great stress on how environment and heredity shape people. 3) As a literary movement, Naturalism was initiated in France. 4) Naturalist fiction aspired to a sociological objectivity, offering detailed and fully researched investigations into unexplored concerns of modern society.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  21. Local Colorism(鄉土文學)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Generally speaking, the writings of local colorists are concerned with the life of a small, well-defined region or province. The characteristic setting is the isolated small town.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2) Local colorists were consciously nostalgic historians of a vanishing way of life, recorders of a present that faded before their eyes. Yet for all their sentimentality, they dedicated themselves to minutely accurate descriptions of the life of their regions, they worked from personal experience to record the facts of a local environment and suggested that the native life was shaped by the curious conditions of the local.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3) major local colorists is Mark Twain.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  22. Imagism(意象主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Imagism came into being in Britain and U.S around 1910 as a reaction to the traditional English poetry to express the sense of fragmentation and dislocation.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>the imagists, with Ezra Pound leading the way, hold that the most effective means to express these momentary impressions is through the use of one dominant image.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>imagism is characterized by the following three poetic principles:Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  A. direct treatment of subject matter;Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  B. economy of expression;Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  C. as regards rhythm, to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of metronome.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  4> pound‘s In a Station of the Metro is a well-known imagist poem.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  23. The Lost Generation(迷惘的一代)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The lost generation is a term first used by Stein to describe the post-war I generation of American writers: men and women haunted by a sense of betrayal and emptiness brought about by the destructiveness of the war.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>full of youthful idealism, these individuals sought the meaning of life, drank excessively, had love affairs and created some of the finest American literature to date.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3>the three best-known representatives of lost generation are F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hemingway and John dos Passos.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  24. Expressionism(表現主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Expressionism refers to a movement in Germany early in the 20th century. In which a number of painters sought to avoid the representation of external reality and ,instead, to project a highly personal or subjective vision of the world.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> expressionism is a reaction against realism or naturalism, aiming at presenting a post-war world violently distorted.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> in a further sense, the term is sometimes applied to the belief that literary works are essentially expressions of their authors‘moods and thoughts; this has been the dominant assumption about literature since the rise of romanticism.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  25. The Beat Generation(垮掉的一代)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The members of The Beat Generation were new bohemian libertines, who engaged in a spontaneous, sometimes messy, creativity.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2> The Beat writers produced a body of written work controversial both for its advocacy of non-conformity and for its non-conforming style.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> the major beat writings are Allen Ginsberg‘s Howl. Howl became the manifesto of The Beat Generation.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  26. Jazz Age(爵士時代)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  The Jazz Age describes the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the years between World War I and World War II. Particularly in North America. With the rise of the great depression, the values of this age saw much decline. Perhaps the most representative literary work of the age is American writer Fitzgerald‘s The Great Gatsby. Highlighting what some describe as the decadence and hedonism, as well as the growth of individualism. Fitzgerald is largely credited with coining the term“ Jazz Age”。Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  27. Surrealism(超現實主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  An anti-rational movement of imaginative liberation in European in art and literature in the 1920s and 1930s, which launched by Andre Breton after his break from the Dada group in 1922. Surrealism seeks to break down the boundaries between rationality and irrationality, exploring the resources and revolutionary energies of dreams, hallucinations and sexual desire. Influenced both by the symbolists and by Sigmund Freud‘s theories of the unconscious, the surrealists experimented with automatic writing and with the free association of random images brought in surprising juxtaposition.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁


  28. Metaphysical poets(玄學派詩人)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  It is the name given to a diverse group of 17th century English poets whose work is notable for its ingenious use of intellectual and theological concepts in surprising conceits, strange paradoxes and far-fetched imagery. The leading Metaphysical poet was John Donne, whose colloquial, argumentative abruptness of rhythm and tone distinguishes his style from the conventions of Elizabethan love lyrics.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  29. New Criticism(新批評主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  New Criticism is a movement in American literary criticism from the 1930s to the 1960s, concentrating on the verbal complexities and ambiguities of short poems considered as self-sufficient objects without attention to their origins or effects. The name comes from John Chrisom‘s book The New Criticism.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  30. Feminism(女權主義)Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  Feminism incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women and an ideology of social transformation aiming to create a world for women beyond simple social equality.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  2>in general, feminism is ideology of women‘s liberation based on the belief that women suffer injustice because of their sex. Under this broad umbrella various feminisms offer differing analyses of the causes, or agents, of female oppression.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁

  3> definitions of feminism by feminists tend to be shaped by their training, ideology or race. So, for example, Marxist and socialist feminists stress the interaction within feminism of class with gender and focus on social distinctions between men and women. Black feminists argue much more for an integrated analysis which can unlock the multiple systems of oppression.Qeu365投注平台_365bet官网本科_365bet官网報名_首頁